Bulletins

Epidemiology Week 34

Swine Flu What is it? Swine flu is a type of influenza or flu that is caused by a virus that usually circulates in pigs. Influenza A(H3N2v) is a type of swine flu virus. The notation or how the name of the virus is written is similar to that used… Read More



Epidemiology Week 33

Flood Waters or Standing Waters Health Risks Flood waters and standing waters pose various risks, including infectious diseases, chemical hazards, and injuries.   Diarrheal Diseases Eating or drinking anything contaminated by flood water can cause diarrheal disease.   Chemical Hazards Be aware of potential chemical hazards during floods. Flood waters… Read More



Epidemiology Week 32

After a Hurricane Food Safety If your power is out, keep your refrigerator and freezer doors closed as much as possible to keep in the cool air. Put a block of ice in your refrigerator if you expect the power will be out for more than 4 hours. It will… Read More



Epidemiology Week 31

Before a Hurricane Get Your Family Ready Go over your emergency plan with your family. Make sure you have the supplies you need. Keep checking for updates about the storm. Watch TV, listen to the radio, or check online. Pack important documents (like wills or passports) with you. Call the… Read More



Epidemiology Week 30

Drought Drought is a natural phenomenon in which rainfall is lower than average for an extended period of time, resulting in inadequate water supply. Drought can lead to public health problems. Some drought-related health effects are experienced in the short-term and can be directly observed and measured. However, the slow… Read More



Epidemiology Week 29

10 Facts on Antimicrobial Resistance (Part 2)   Animal husbandry is a source of resistance to antibiotics Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics are used in animal-rearing for promoting growth or preventing diseases. This can result in resistant microorganisms, which can spread to humans.   Poor infection prevention and control amplifies drug… Read More



Epidemiology Week 28

10 Facts on Antimicrobial Resistance (Part 1)   What is antimicrobial resistance? Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) to stop an antimicrobial (such as antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials) from working against it. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and… Read More



Epidemiology Week 27

Climate change and infectious diseases (Contd.)   Predictive Modeling (continued) Statistical models require, first, the derivation of a statistical (empirical) relationship between the current geographic distribution of the disease and the current location-specific climatic conditions. By then applying this statistical equation to future climate scenarios, the actual distribution of the… Read More



Epidemiology Week 26

Climate change and infectious diseases (Contd.)   Observed and predicted climate/infectious disease links There are three categories of research into the linkages between climatic conditions and infectious disease transmission. The first examines evidence from the recent past of associations between climate variability and infectious disease occurrence. The second looks at… Read More



Epidemiology Week 25

Climate change and infectious diseases Today, worldwide, there is an apparent increase in many infectious diseases, including some newly-circulating ones … This reflects the combined impacts of rapid demographic, environmental, social, technological and other changes in our ways-of-living. Climate change will also affect infectious disease occurrence.   Vector-borne and water-borne… Read More



Epidemiology Week 24

WHO 5 Facts on Malaria Malaria is caused by Plasmodiun parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Of the 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly. Half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria. Every… Read More



Epidemiology Week 23

Tuberculosis and HIV Tuberculosis (TB) is highly associated with overt HIV disease worldwide. The proportion of TB patients who also have HIV (TB/HIV co-infection) varies from 1% to up to 50-70% and tends to be higher when the prevalence of HIV in the respective country is high. In the absence… Read More



Epidemiology Week 22

Leptospirosis The disease and how it affects people Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, and redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary… Read More



Epidemiology Week 17

Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by a protozoan with a broad clinical spectrum and a variety of parasites, reservoirs, and vectors (Phlebotomus flies) involved in its transmission. It is directly linked to poverty but is also influenced by environmental and climactic factors. The cutaneous form causes skin ulcers… Read More